Prof. Dr. Ir. A.R. Adji Hoesodo, SH, MH, PhD
Chirman of Josay, Academics, Businessmen, PPSA XXI Lemhannas RI Alumni
President of Global Profeneur University, Singapore, Unesco WPF Civil Educator;
USE-WPF Professor of Civil Knowledge – Political Prediction, Athenes, Greece
This paper is presented at ITMUT, Sao Paulo, Brazil together
Karisa Zeisha Sahela, ST, MBA, PhD
What is The Quran?
The Quran (/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن, romanized: al-Qurʼān Arabic pronunciation: [alqur’ʔaːn],[b] literally meaning “the recitation”; also romanized Qur’an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters (Arabic: سورة sūrah, plural سور suwar), which are subdivided into verses (Arabic: آية āyah, plural آيات āyāt).
Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad’s most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, and the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad. The word “Quran” occurs some 70 times in the Quran’s text, and other names and words are also said to refer to the Quran.
According to tradition, several of Muhammad’s companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it. The codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman’s codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning.
The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional oral and written traditions supplementing the Quran; from careful authentication they are believed to describe words and actions of Muhammad, and in some traditions also those closest to him. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia (Islamic) law; in a small number of denominations, only the Quran is used as a source, an approach called Quranism. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.
Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse (ayah) is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
What is The Science?
Science , science , or science ( English : science ; Arabic : العِلْـمُ ) are conscious attempts to investigate, discover and improve human understanding from various aspects of reality in human nature. These aspects are limited in order to produce definitive formulations. Science provides certainty by limiting the scope of its views, and certainty of science is obtained from its limitations.
Another explanation of science is a system of various knowledge obtained from the results of examinations carried out carefully using a certain method. So, science is all the activities of a situation by using tools, procedures, ways, methods, so as to produce new knowledge for humans themselves.
Science is knowledge that has been categorized, systematized, and interpreted so as to produce an objective truth and its scientific truth has been tested. Simply, science is an activity of thinking to get the right knowledge or simply aiming at science to get the truth.
Science is not just knowledge, but summarizes a collection of knowledge based on agreed theories and can be systematically tested with a set of methods that are recognized in a particular field of science. Viewed from the perspective of philosophy, science is formed because humans try to think further about the knowledge they have. Science is a product of epistemology , in other words science is formed from 3 branches of philosophy, namely ontology, epistemology and axiology, if the three branches are fulfilled, it means that they are legitimate and recognized as a science.
Viewed from the perspective of philosophy, science is formed because humans try to think further about the knowledge they have. The knowledgeable person means he has knowledge, basis, understanding, and has limits depending on his limitations in seeking knowledge gained.
Science is concrete, so it can be observed, studied, and taught and tested for its truth, regular, unique or special in the sense of having its own methodology, objects, systematics and theories. Science must also be empirical (the result of the five senses or experiments), systematic, objective, analytical, and verification.
How are the Benefits for Humans?
Science is an understanding obtained by humans through inventions or research that are arranged systematically and can be tested through several specific methods, and can be utilized for human life. Science is the main key for humans in living life on earth. Conscious or not, everything we do in our daily lives cannot be separated from knowledge. We need understanding to do an action right? That is the basic function of science.
By binding to a science, someone is able to do things that are considered beneficial to himself and others by implementing (applying) the knowledge he has. The benefits of knowledge are not only felt by individuals but the surrounding environment and even the wider community can be affected by the spark of benefits from one’s knowledge. Below is the the explanation:
1. Being able to distinguish right from wrong
The benefits of studying someone will not be trapped in wrong actions or actions. The possibility of doing wrong because the influence of others is also very small. People with knowledge will have a strong foundation of life and always try to put themselves in the position that he considers appropriate.
2. Useful Until Death
After a human dies (death), everything has been lost on the world. Essentially humans will leave all forms of affairs that are entwined in humans automatically when they die. With knowledge left behind or delivered, someone will be remembered forever. The term write then you will be eternal is a form of the process of transmission of knowledge through writing. The knowledge contained in these writings will always be useful even after the author’s death.
3. Means Towards Heaven
In the next life man will occupy a room called heaven. Then how can science be called a means to heaven? Of course it has been explained at the first point that with knowledge one can distinguish right from wrong. With the knowledge of the truth, people who think normally will certainly try as much as possible to do the right actions or actions and stay away from actions or actions that are considered wrong, right? That truth will deliver someone to a place called heaven.
4. Elevate Human Degrees
Degrees or levels of humans will be elevated with the knowledge or knowledge possessed. Whether in God’s eyes or in the sight of fellow human beings, people who have knowledge are always given good respect. Even someone who is in the process of pursuing knowledge has also received a positive outlook from the environment, right?
5. Valuable things besides assets
In this life people assume that wealth and wealth are the two most valuable things. Then is there anything else that has more value than wealth and wealth? The answer is certainly there. What things have more value and most valuable on this earth besides science? Abundant wealth and wealth will make someone try to keep the property from being lost. In contrast to the knowledge that is able to take care of human beings and can bring wealth.
Someone who is rich alone cannot survive the overabundance he is guarding. However, a knowledgeable person who is able to process the conditions that can bring wealth continuously in the long run with the knowledge he has.
What is the Relationship between The Quran and The Science
Discussing the relationship between The Quran and science is not judged by the many or not branches of science it contains, but more important is to see: is The Quran or the soul of the verses hindering science or encouraging it, because of the progress of science knowledge is not only measured through contributions made to society or the collection of ideas and methods it develops, but also on a set of psychological and social conditions that are realized, so that it has an influence (positive or negative) on the progress of science.
History proves that when Galileo revealed his scientific discoveries were not challenged by a scientific institution, except from the society where he lived. They challenged him on the basis of religious beliefs. As a result, Galileo eventually became a victim of his own discovery.
In The Quran the words “science” in its various forms are repeated 854 times. Besides that, there are also many verses of The Quran that encourage the use of reason, reasoning, and so on, as stated by the verses that explain the obstacles to scientific progress, including:
- Subjectivity (a) likes and dislikes (read, among others, QS 43:78; 7:79); (b) taqlid or follow without reason (read, among others, QS 33:67; 2: 170).
- Unreasonable dreams and conjectures (read, among others, QS 10:36).
- Hurry up in making decisions or conclusions (read, among others, QS 21:37).
- Attitude arrogant (reluctant to seek or accept the truth) (read, among others, QS 7: 146).
In addition, there are demands including:
- Don’t behave towards something without knowledge base (QS 17:36), in the sense of not defining something unless you really know the problem first (read, among others, QS 36:17), or reject it before there is knowledge (read among others, QS 10:39).
- Don’t judge something because of any external factors even in the person of the most exalted figure.
Such verses are what embody the climate of science and which have given birth to Islamic thinkers and scientists in various disciplines. “There is nothing better to be guided from a book of faith (religion) concerning the field of science except the suggestion to think, and does not set a provision that prevents people from using their minds or limit it to increase knowledge as long as and wherever he wants.” This is the first and foremost correlation between The Quran and science.
The second correlation can be found in scientific cues that are scattered in so many verses of The Quran that talk about the universe and its phenomena. Some of these cues were already known by the Arab community at that time. But what they know is still very limited in its details.
In the scientific interpretation of the verses of The Quran, it brings us to at least three things that need to be underlined, namely (1) Language (2) The context of the verses; and (3) The nature of scientific discoveries.
It was agreed by all parties that to understand the content of The Quran, Arabic knowledge is needed. In order to understand the meaning of a word in the editorial series of a verse, one must first examine what understanding the word contains. Then determine the most appropriate meaning after paying attention to all aspects related to the verse.
2. The context between words or verses
Understanding the meaning of a word in a series of one verse can not be separated from the context of the word with the whole word in the paragraph’s editorial.
3. The nature of scientific discoveries
As stated above, the results of one’s thinking are influenced by many factors, including the development of knowledge and experiences. The development of science has been so rapid, that from this factor alone understanding the editorial of The Quran can vary.
As has been stated that one proof of the truth of The Quran is the knowledge of various disciplines that are required. Memeng is proven, carrying so many verses of The Quran that speak of the scientific nature of which was not known at the time of its descent, but proven its truth in the midst of the development of science, such as:
- Theories about expanding universe (expanding cosmos) (QS 51:47).
- The sun is a radiant planet while the moon is a reflection of sunlight (QS 10: 5).
- The movement of the earth around the sun, the movement of layers that originate from the bowels of the earth, and the movement of mountains is the same as the movement of clouds (QS 27:88).
- Leaf green matter (chlorophyll) which plays a role in converting solar radiation energy into chemical energy through photo synthesis process to produce energy (QS 36:80). right from the term chlorophyll (green leaf), because these substances are not only found in the leaves, but in all parts of the tree, branches and twigs that are green.
- That man was created from a small portion of male sperm and which after fertilization (fertilization) is attached to the uterine wall (QS 86: 6 and 7; 96: 2).
The Relationship of The Quran, The Science, and World Peace
Among all religions, Islam is the only religion that combines philosophy and its noble purpose in its name, namely the establishment of peace and surrender fully to God.
This is the reason why The Quran contains teachings that are very comprehensive and real in this regard. These teachings contain all aspects of peace-building in it. For example, I will present some of them.
Islam is accused of being a dangerous and cruel religion that is baseless and without evidence. When in fact the very opposite of what is alleged. Islam is a religion of peace, security and unity. The Quran is filled with such teachings so that it will give that claim.
The Quran has instructed its followers to cooperate with all other religions in humanitarian matters. The Quran says:
“And, please help you in kindness and piety; and do not help in sin and enmity.” (QS 5: 3)
The Quran beautifully gives us instructions not to look at who is asking for help, but for what purpose he is asking for help. If the request is for a good purpose, then cooperate with anyone, regardless of their religion or ethnicity.
The Quran supports freedom of religion and tolerance. This is mentioned in The Quran very clearly:
“There is no compulsion in religion. Indeed the true way is distinctly different from error.” (QS 2: 257)
An argument has been beautifully explained that there is no need to force people into religious matters, because right and wrong can be clearly distinguished from true truth.
Elsewhere in The Quran religious freedom is explained as follows:
“And say,‘ This is the right of your Lord; then whoever wants, then believe, and whoever wants, then deny.” (QS 18:30)
This verse clearly states that there is no type of world punishment whatsoever for refusing to follow Islam.
The Quran has taught other principles in promoting unity and solidarity among followers of all religions; that God has sent His messengers to all the nations of the world and we must recognize that all these messengers and their books and messages are really from Allah SWT. The Quran says:
“And there is not a single people, but has been sent to them a reminder.” (QS 35:25)
And again The Quran says:
“Truly you are a warner, and for every people there is a guide.” (QS 13: 8)
This extraordinary integration of Islam for all people is evidenced by every Muslim by stating:
“We do not differentiate between any of His Apostles from one another.” (QS 2: 286)
Not only that, The Quran more broadly states that we must respect all religions, the founders of all religions, all religious books and leaders of all religions. This beautiful teaching of integration will create a relationship of mutual respect and cooperation between adherents of religion, reducing the difference.
The Quran mentions another major principle for bringing about world peace, which is about electing a leader. Everyone is obliged to give his voice with honesty so that the chosen leader can carry out his responsibilities as well as possible, and those who are elected are obliged to carry out their responsibilities with justice and perseverance.
The Quran says:
“Verily, God commands you to surrender the messages to those who are entitled to receive them, and if you judge among men, you should decide fairly. Verily, Allah advises you in that way. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.” (QS 4:59)
If both parties follow this principle correctly, each country can be an example of peace and security so that world peace can be created. Of course if this principle is practiced, there will undoubtedly be created a safe and peaceful state.
Today, the whole world has become a global village because of modern means of communication. Thus, it becomes even more important to build good relations at the international level. The Quran has based the integrity of international relations with the principle of absolute justice.
“O you who believe, you must stand firm for God, be a just witness; and do not hate something people encourage you to act unjustly. Be fair; it is closer to piety. And fear Allah. Truly, Allah is All-Knowing what you do.” (QS 5: 9)
This principle holds a key position in the formation of international peace. If all countries hold to the principle of justice at all times, all their differences can be lost quickly. Today our world does not only require the United Nations, only a name, but a strong international organization that focuses solely on upholding true justice in international relations. Without justice, people cannot understand the meaning of world peace.
The Quran is a Divine book that also teaches us about certain conditions. For example the affairs of a country that takes up arms to another country or when a full war has begun, The Quran says:
“And if two groups of believers fight, then reconcile between the two, then if one of them attacks the other, fight the attacking party, until he returns to Allah’s command, then if he returns, reconcile between both fairly and do justice. Surely Allah loves those who do justice.” (QS 49:10)
It is important to note that although the verse is intended for believers, this verse contains principles that guide all nations of the world. This is very important in the context of the current world situation. If a powerful country attacks another country because of its oil or other resources without justified reasons, many other countries will participate in this crime for their own benefit, while other countries take silence as spectators. This condition can be handled appropriately by the application of the above principle.
One frequently asked question is ‘How can Islam be considered a religion of peace while we find war in Islamic history?’ Answering this question, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said:
“If we study The Quran and the life and morals of the founder of Islam, The Prophet Muhammad, it is clear that the early Muslims never started fighting or strife. Even if Muslims engage in battle, this is purely to defend themselves, and the aim is to stop the attackers from carrying out their aggression, and so that they do not impose their power over others or injustice. History bears witness that the Muslims of this period never attempted to conquer another country or region or try to enslave them.”
The Quran verses that first allowed Muslims to take up arms in order to defend themselves are:
“It has been permitted for those who have been fought, because they have been persecuted. And God has the power to help them. People who have been driven out of their homes without rights, just because they say, “Our Lord is God.” Christian and Jewish houses of worship and mosques are many called the name of God in them. And surely Allah will help those who help Him. Surely Allah is almighty, almighty.” (QS 22: 40-41)
It is important to note here that if permission for self-defense is not granted to Muslims, all places of worship will risk destruction by the attackers, including temples, churches, synagogues and mosques. This permission is not only to defend Islam, but also to protect all religions and their worship activities.
Another distinctive feature of the teachings of The Quran regarding permission to fight to protect oneself is a unique example not found in the teachings of other religions. Let’s examine the instructions. The Quran says:
“And fight in the way of Allah, those who fight you, but do not exceed the limits, Verily, Allah does not love those who transgress.” (QS 2: 191)
And elsewhere, The Quran states:
“And if you decide that you will punish, then punish them in proportion to the mistakes made against you. However, if you are patient then that is really better for patient people.” (QS 16: 127)
Then, a special guide to doing justice, The Quran states:
“And fight them so that there is no more slander, and religion is only for Allah. But, if they stop, then there is no animosity except towards the persecutors.” (QS 2: 194)
Once again, the beauty of The Quran becomes evidenced by the teachings about reconciling to the enemy.
“And if they are inclined towards peace, then you are inclined to him and be loyal to Allah. Indeed, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.” (QS 8:62)
All that was stated above is a brief summary of the beautiful teachings of The Quran about world peace. This teaching is intended for all people in the world and Muslims. This teaching is intended for anyone who is sincere in establishing world peace. The current world situation demands that these teachings can be applied so that all the world’s problems can be corrected and the world brought into peaceful conditions!
I would like to conclude my presentation by quoting the words of the world’s foremost spiritual leader and bearer of peace, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad. He explained:
“At present, the most important and urgent need of the world is creating world peace and recognizing our Lord … This is an important need now for countries to pay attention to these two things, if not the world is on the brink of collapse, a catastrophe that unimaginable … Therefore to save ourselves and for the sake of humanity, we need to turn our attention to God, and develop our close relationship with the Almighty God.”
He also said:
“Above all, it is very important for the world to realize that they have forgotten His Creator, and need to draw closer to Him. This is the only way that can help bring about true peace. Without this there is no guarantee of peace. “
- Teaching Materials and Studies at ICAS, Mysticism Study Program
- Various Print Sources and OnLine