Sufism and World Peace

By
Prof. Dr. Ir.A.R.Adji Hoesodo, MD (H), SH, MH, MBA
Chairman of Josay, Academics, Businessmen, PPSA XXI Lemhannas RI Alumni
President of Global Profeneur University, Singapore, Unesco WPF Civil Educator;
USE-WPF Professor of Civil Knowledge – Political Prediction, Athenes, Greece
This paper is presented at ITMUT, Sao Paulo, Brazil together
Dr (Cand). Karisa Zeisha Sahela, ST, MBA

Preliminary

What is Sufism?

Sufism (Sufism) or Sufism (Arabic: تصوف,) is the science of knowing how to purify the soul, purify the morality, build dhahir and the mind and to obtain eternal happiness. Sufism was originally a zuhud movement (away from worldly things) in Islam, and in its development gave birth to a tradition of Islamic mysticism. The tariqa (various schools of Sufiism) is often associated with Shiites, Sunnis, other branches of Islam, or a combination of several traditions [citation needed]. Sufi thought emerged in the Middle East in the 8th century, now this tradition has spread to all parts of the world. Sufism is a concept in Islam, which is defined by experts as part of the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; others argue that Sufism is a perennial philosophy that existed before the presence of religion, an expression that developed with Islam.

Heart Management in the concept of Sufism

Understanding the Meanings and Various Terms About the Heart

In Islamic teachings, the heart (Arabic: al-qalb) has a very important position. He is the principal and be a leader who is obeyed in the work system of the organs of the body. Other organs of the body are like people who are subject to every command of the heart; as nature is subject to and obey the provisions and laws of God. The heart is also the place of the existence of faith, taqwa and guidance.

The term heart (al-qalb) is known to mention two things. First, a lump of heartstrap located on the left side of the chest. He is special meat, in which there is a cavity containing blood which is the source and center of the spirit. Hearts in this form are also found in the body structure of animals. Al-Qur’an in this sense is more accurately interpreted as “heart”.

The second definition is a heart that is rabbani spiritual (divinity and spirituality) which is the essence of man. A heart like this is the spiritual nature of human beings, namely those who know, understand and understand; criticized, demanded and received orders (Q.S. al-Ahzab: 5). Heart in this sense will be the discussion in this paper.

The inner heart functions almost the same as the physical heart. If the physical heart is located at the center of the body, then the inner heart lies between the lower self (nafs) and the noble soul (al-ruh). The physical heart regulates the physical system, and the inner heart regulates the psychic system. The physical heart nourishes the body by sending fresh and oxygenated blood to each cell and organ in the body. But he also received dirty blood through veins. Likewise with the inner heart; the inner heart (conscience) is also in a fixed cycle, which regulates the alternating current between the influence of the holy spirit and the dirty soul (nafs).

Therefore, the heart in Arabic is called qalb from the root word q-l-b, which means to rotate, change or change. The heart has a characteristic that changes, switches (munqalib) from nature to character. He nourishes the soul by radiating wisdom and light to be able to purify personalities and bad qualities. The heart has one face that faces the spiritual world, and one face again faces the world of low self and our bad qualities.

Heart Stations

According to al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi, a Sufi teacher who lived in the eighth century AD, the human heart has four stations: shadr (dada), qalb (heart), fu’âd (deeper heart), and lubb (deepest heart ). These four stations have an arrangement like a group of circles. The chest is the outer circle, the heart (qalb) and the deeper heart (fu’âd) are in the two middle circles, and the heart core (lubb) is located at the center of the circle. These four stations are like different areas of a house. Chest is the outermost area. Like the edge of a house bordering the outer area, where wild animals and strangers roam. He is the border of the heart (soul) and the world (body).

The heart (qalb) can be likened to the house itself. It is circled by walls and secured by locked gates or gates. Only family members and guests invited may enter it. While the deeper heart (lubb) is a locked room that holds valuable family heirlooms. Only a few family members have the key.

Sufis often refer to al-qalb as bait al-hikmah (hearts that produce sincerity), bait al-Muqaddas (hearts that relate to others), bait al-muharram (hearts that know and love God and are forbidden besides it), couplets al-‘izzat (heart which reaches the level of al-jama ‘when a person is in the mortal state towards Allah, and al-‘iffah al-mubîn (the highest peak of the human heart).

Each heart station accommodates its own light. The chest accommodates the practical light of the form of practice of every religion, the heart embraces the light of faith, the heart embraces deeper light or knowledge of spiritual truth, and the lubb embraces two lights, the light of unity, and the light of uniqueness which are the two faces of the Divine. Each station is also associated with different spiritual levels, different levels of knowledge and places of understanding, and different levels of nafs.

Robert Frager describes the various light levels at each station as follows:

“Some travelers once spent the night in an uninhabited and pitch black house. There they turn on the lights to then be able to open doors and windows so that the moonlight can radiate into the house as additional light. After that the travelers went out into the desert, sheltering under the moonlight. At that time they no longer needed the light. Dawn then dawns over the moonlight until the sun finally reaches its peak and the dawn light remains limited to memories for them “.

The dark house is a picture of the tyrannical nafs that blocks all light. The lamp is the light of reason, and when reason begins to increase and is used in the knowledge of outward action, it is like the appearance of the moon (shadr station). The light of faith is like the light of dawn (station of the heart), then through vision obtained through the light of God, the light becomes even brighter (fu’d station). He then continues to get brighter through the light of unity and continues to reach the peak of his power (lubb station).

Between the Heart, the Soul, the Nafs and the mind

Knowing and distinguishing these four terms is very important. Because the discussion of these four problems can be said to be very rare and sometimes even ambiguous. Explanation of these four terms generally refers to al-Ghazali’s explanation in the chapter “explanation of the meaning of soul, spirit, heart and mind” of the book Ihya ‘‘ Ulumuddîn. The author will try to identify the meaning, name, boundaries and symbols used. The philosophers, as mentioned by al-Razi, argue that in total humans consist of three mental elements, namely: the first lust (desire) which is usually associated with the liver (liver). Second, anger is usually associated with the heart (as the heart) and third, reason that is commonly associated with the brain.

Ibn Sina also stated in his al-Qanûn that humans have three important parts in their bodies; heart (heart), brain and heart (liver). These three main organs are organs that are the basis of the main potential for the body and are needed for the survival of individuals. The heart is the basis of potential life, the brain is the basis of both sense and motion potential, and the heart (liver) is the basis for potential food transformation18. The heart in this sense is not the meaning of the inner heart, but the heart in the physical sense.

Heart, soul, spirit and mind, as called Sa’id Hawwa, can sometimes have a single meaning. These names can change due to various human spirit changes. If lust can defeat the spirit, then it is called lust (low self in terms of Frager). If the spirit can defeat lust, it is called reason, whereas if the cause is a sense of faith, it is called the heart. And if he knows God truly and does worship sincerely, then he is called a spirit.

Al-Qalb (Heart)

As has been explained in advance, heart is the absolute leader of the whole body. It is a subtle organ that can receive divine signals, and most importantly with regard to the discussion of heart management as said by Said Hawwa, he is the center of Islamic education because he is a locus of memory and understanding. Heart is the locus where realities can be understood and understood.

Al-Ruh

The term spirit as well as heart, refers to two meanings. The first meaning is the body or subtle body that comes from the cavity of the physical body. It is spread to all parts of the body by means of the arteries, and also spread to the blood streams in the body and to the flow of living sources, instincts, sources of vision, sources of hearing, and sources of smell to their respective organs. It is the same as the flow of light that illuminates every side of the house, so that no part of the house does not get its light.

Just like this life. He is the same as the light with wide coverage, the spirit is the same as the lamp. The inner spirit and movement of the soul is the same as flow or the propagation of the lamp light that is found on each side of the house with the burning material. Doctors refer to the spirit as a very fine vapor that can heat the heart’s heat.

The second meaning, is the subtle feeling (lathîfah) of people who know and understand. It is a matter and extraordinary business, until most of human reason and understanding are unable to grasp its essence. This is the purpose of the word of God: “Say, that spirit belongs to my Lord. (Surat al-Isra ‘: 85).

Al-Nafs (Self, Self)

The Nafs has many connotations of meaning. But in broad outline it can be classified into two meanings, namely: first, the scope of the meaning of the power of anger and lust (lust) in humans. This understanding is often used by Sufism experts, because the intention of the nafs according to them is the basis of the coverage of despicable characteristics of humans. This is based on a saying of the Prophet: “Your greatest enemy is the desire that is between your two stomachs”. (H.R. Baihaqi).

The second meaning, the subtle feeling that is the essence of man. He is the human soul and its essence, only this nafs can be multi-dimensional, depending on circumstances. Where when he is still in control, he is called an-nafs al-muthma’innah (serene soul) as the word of God: “O serene soul, return to your Lord with a satisfied heart again supplied by Him”. (Surat al-Fajr: 27-28).

If the nafs is not yet perfect, but it still attacks and opens the front with lust, then such nafs is called an-nafs al-lawwâmah (a soul that regrets itself). Because the nafs reviles its owner when he neglects his devotion to God. “And I swear by a soul that deeply regrets (himself)” (Q. S. Al-Qiyamah: 2).

But if the nafs has turned away from opposition, submissive and obedient to the desires of lust and the temptations of the devil, the nafs is called an-nafs al-ammârah bi al-su ’(lust that succumbs to evil). Allah SWT. said telling Al-Aziz’s wife: And I did not free me from mistakes, because actually lust always told evil. (Surah Yusuf: 53) Lust like this is the type of lust in the first sense above.

Common sense

Sometimes the term reason is meant in the knowledge of the nature of things, and this is the nature of the knowledge contained in the heart. Sometimes it is also intended in the knowledge that knows all knowledge. Namely hearts that have subtle feelings.

As is known, every person with knowledge has an independent form in himself. Science is the nature that occupies a form and is an undifferentiated trait. Whereas reason is the nature of knowledgeable people, or it is usually interpreted as a place of knowledge.

In Islamic terms often found the terms taklifi sense and syar’i sense. The first type of intellect that every human has as long as he is not crazy. This level of reason is the lowest level possessed by a person who resigns and will later be held accountable.

The second type is syar’i sense. This type of mind is located in the heart and has levels. The most perfect manifestation of reason is the restraint of his desires based on Allah’s command, in addition to the surrender and recognition of Him. This type of reason, and how to reach this level of reason is the object of Sufism study.

Of all the above descriptions it is clear that the heart (in the sense of lathîfah) is the core of all organs that exist in man. He is the essence of all the light of goodness. All efforts to cleanse in the spiritual journey such as purification of the soul (tazkiyyat / tashfiyyat al-nafs), enlightenment of the heart (tanwir al-qulũb), as well as the qolbu (MQ) management concept which will be the topic of discussion here are an initial effort to clean and uncover various veils that cover the pure light that comes from the bottom of the deepest heart (lubb) that God has given to humans.

Human ability to achieve ma’rifatullah degree with a clean heart in this case is like the ability of humans to destroy hard objects with the blow of “inner energy”. Under normal circumstances humans are indeed impossible to do things like that. However, it can empirically even often occur, after he can train himself so that the potential that is actually owned by each person he successfully obtained by doing certain exercises.

Qalbu Management in Perspective

Perspective of the Sufi General

“If the sirri sky is clear of clouds, then the sun of testimony will rise from the star of glory” (al-Qusyairi)

Sufis have agreed that the only way to attain God’s witness (musyahadah) is with the sanctity of the soul. The human heart is a reflection of the essence of God  that is holy, and therefore the human heart must reach the level of purity and perfection23. To achieve this, every Muslim must have continuous enthusiasm and perseverance to be able to arrive and obtain a clear, clean and safe heart (qalbun salîm).

According to Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, the glory and virtue of mankind lies in the readiness of humans to know (ma’rifah) 24 Allah the Creator. Because of the introduction of humans to God, humans get the beauty, perfection and pride of life in the world, and in the hereafter he will get what He promises.

In al-Ghazali’s view, man’s recognition of His Essence (ma’rifatullah), is through his heart. It is the heart that can know Him and he also can draw men closer to Him. The heart can also interact with God and always walk towards Him. The heart is a media that reveals what is on His side and what He has. The function of all members of the human body is nothing more than a follower or servant of the heart in an effort towards Him. The heart will win and feel pleasure if it is always close to God as long as humans maintain cleanliness. In other circumstances the heart will suffer and lose hope if it is dirty and covered with unclean. Obedience and renege to God are the behaviors of the heart that are reflected in birth. Darkness and lightness of heart will reveal its mark in good and bad deeds, just as every glass will emit what’s inside it.

If humans already know his heart, it means he already knows himself. And if someone already knows himself, then he already knows his God. And that Allah Almighty. resting between one’s self and heart so that he can witness Him, get to know His attributes, know the movements of their hearts which are between the two fingers of Al-Rahman.

In addition, humans are also blessed with divine qualities such as being happy in power, privilege, authoritarian, wanting to know everything and everything else. At the same time he is endowed with animal traits such as emotions and lust. All of these characters are found in human hearts.

Thus in humans there are four combinations of basic elements namely the nature of God, the nature of Satan, the nature of savagery and animalistic nature. Four of these compounds are compounded in the heart, so that behind the outer appearance of humans as if collected animals of pigs, dogs, demons and wise men. Pigs are likened to al-Ghazali as lust, and dogs are likened to anger; where both have a tendency to abuse and despicable. Satan is a symbol that always ignites lust, evokes anger, and resentment that is owned by the nature of pigs and wild animals. He always justifies the actions of pigs and wild animals. As for the wise man, he is a parable of the human mind that is constantly struggling against Satan’s deception and exposes his deception with his sharp inner views and his firm policies. He is like a manager of both the power of dogs and pigs, so that if he manages both of them well, there will be balance and justice in the body kingdom, so that someone will walk on the straight path. So the success of a person in curbing lust and anger will lead to brave, generous, helpful, controlling lust, patience, generous, steadfast, forgiving, stubborn, friendly, intelligent, dignified, and so on.

Besides that the heart is likened to a mirror that is surrounded by potential things that surround it. The influence of goodness will make the mirror more clean, shiny, bright and shining. Thus the light of truth will emanate from it, so the essence of religion will be revealed. Regarding this the Prophet said: “If Allah wants goodness for a servant, then Allah makes his heart as his advisor” (H.R. Ad-Dailami). And his saying: “Whoever has an advisor from his heart, surely there is a guardian from Allah for him.” This heart always remembers Allah (Q.S. Ar-Ra’du: 28).

On the other hand, the influence of ugliness for the heart is like a mirror that is exposed to black smoke, so that the mirror which is basically bright becomes black and concentrated, until the entire surface is insulated from Allah. This is the purpose of the word of God: “Never (in fact), actually what they are trying to cover their hearts”. (Surah Al-Muttaffin: 14). Also the verse: “… … … and we are dead to them, so that they cannot hear (lessons again)” (Al-A’raf: 100).

When sin has piled up, it will cover the heart so that the heart will not be able to know the truth and goodness of religion. He will underestimate the affairs of the hereafter and assume the importance of world affairs, until he devotes all his attention to world affairs. Maimun bin Mahran said: “If a servant commits a sin, then a black stain will cling to his heart. When he removes it and repents, the heart will shine again. And when he commits sin, the blemish he has caused is darker than the old blemish that has been removed, to the point that he is able to defeat his heart. This opinion was strengthened by the Prophet’s hadith: “The heart of a believer is clean, in which there is a luminous lamp. While the hearts of infidels are black all over its surface “. (H.R. Thabrani and Ahmad).

The bright heart and ability to see (ma’rifah) can be achieved by dhikr. And dhikr is not possible except by those who commit. Then taqwa is the door of dhikr, and dhikr is the door of the disclosure of divine secrets (al-kasyf), and al-kasyf is the greatest victory, namely meeting with Allah Almighty. Bad actions followed by good deeds will erase the stain, and not discolor the heart. But it will reduce the light of the heart. This is likened to a mirror that is blown then rubbed, then blown and rubbed again, so it remains murky.

As for the influx of influences which arise in the heart, under any circumstances it will only arise through the means of birth, namely the five senses, or through mental means such as imagination, lust, anger, and morals formed from human nature. When the five senses capture an object, the resulting impression will imprint in the heart. Likewise, if lust is burning because of eating too much or because the nature of lust is strong, then the scars will also reach the heart. So the heart is always changing and influenced by certain causes.

Thus maintaining and maintaining liver hygiene becomes very important. One should occupy oneself against the attacks of his enemy (the devil through misgivings). He must really know what must be prepared for it, in order to be able to resist Satan’s deception and turmoil. From here it is known how important various wiridan and dzikir as much as possible, I’tikaf, khalwat (seclusion from things that pretend to be immoral), takhannust (contemplation) and others, as the Prophet did in the cave of Hira ‘before the first revelation descended.

Sufism Relations with World Peace

Amin Haedari, et al. Cited in Amin Haedari, et al., The Future of Islamic Boarding Schools in the Challenges of Modernity and Global Complexity Challenges (Jakarta: IRD Press, 2004, p. 63), Martin van Bruinessen stated, if we review the history of Indonesian Islam, emphasis on fiqh is not as strong as lately. At first, Indonesian Islam was very much oriented towards Sufism and only gradually became more oriented towards Sharia. This change in orientation, among others, was due to the process of renewal and “purification that had begun in the 17th century and is still continuing today” (meaning when the research was conducted before 1995).

In the Yellow Book: Pesantren and Tarekat, (Bandung: Mizan, 1995, p. 112), Martin called Padri, al-Isryad, Muhammadiyah and Persis as the prominent waves of renewal in this process. Add to this was the emergence of the Naqshabandiyah Tariqa at the end of the 19th century which was more oriented towards Sharia than the previous tarekat. In Martin’s observation, each wave of renewal always brings greater attention to Jurisprudence and to the system of thought that lies behind it, Usul Fiqh.

The same thing is recognized by Harun Nasution in Islamic Theology; Historical Streams of Comparative Analysis (Jakarta: UI Press, 1986, p. Xi), yang states that the teachings that stand out are actually fiqh, which in turn gives a “crippled” picture of Islam. Whereas in addition to fiqh aspects, Islam has aspects of theology, philosophy, mysticism, culture, science and so on.

Another aspect, in this case Sufism, may need to be added portions and doses in teaching in boarding schools. Why Sufism? According to Sufi scholar Ibn Araby, Kautsar Azhari Noer, “Fill is more tolerant than skin”. For him, Sufism is teaching the contents or the essence of religion that is not insulated rigidly by black-white or halal-haram space.

These teachings without barriers are believed to be a knitting rope for tolerance and world peace. In the book Variety of Islamic Expression of the Archipelago (Jakarta: the WAHID Institute, 2008, pp. 78-80), in 2007, the WAHID Institute even conducted research which concluded that “Sufism is a great tent of peace”.

The question is what mysticism will lead to true tolerance and peace? In general, any teaching and type of Sufism will teach respect for the creatures of Allah, regardless of religious background, social status, ethnicity and so on.

In particular, usually the teachings of Sufism with high doses (which are no longer moral, but philosophical) are more leading to tolerance and peace. According to Kautsar, tolerant Sufism mostly touches (or has geneology) with Wahdah al-Wujud Ibn ‘Arabi. Asghar Ali Enginer in Islam and Liberation Theology (Yogyakarta: Landscape), 2000, p. 297) said, Sufis who adhere to Wahdah al-Wujud can get along freely with everyone regardless of their background, because this concept is considered “universal”.

Narrated Asghar (p. 296), one time Nizamuddin Awliya ‘walked along the Jamuna river with his student, Amir Khusrau. He saw several Hindu women bathing and worshiping the sun. He said; “Har qaum re dine wa qibla gahe” / for each people, there are religions and ways of worship respectively. This is a wonderful example of tolerance and appreciation from different people, which in fact has been taught by all spirituality of any religion.

In the context of Islam, Sufism is most worth putting forward as a tangible manifestation of tolerance and peace. Even at a certain level, the tolerance shown by Sufis sometimes to the extent of “crazy tolerance”.  For the context of Indonesian scholars, for example, a high appreciation for the differences between them was conveyed by Sheikh Nawawi al-Bantani. In al-Futuhat al-Madaniyyah (T.T [: T.Th., pp. 21-22), he writes: Do not look at someone with a condescending and humiliating look, even though he is a polytheist, they are worried that they will affect you. It could be, your ma’rifah (to Allah) was taken, even though he could give it. Especially to non-Muslims who are still faithful and do not double God, to the polytheists (people who double God), forbidden Muslims (la) look at him with contemptuous views.

Sheikh Nawawi al-Bantani’s open view (p. 2) was possible because this work was a spark of Sufism Ibn ‘Araby’s thought. The author of Marah Labid acknowledges that the essence of his work is quoted from two books: al-Niqayah by al-Suyuti and al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah by Muhy al-Din bin ‘Arabi. This shows, in geneology of thought, Sheikh Nawawi is quite familiar and not allergic to Ibn ‘Araby and his work, although the Andalusian Sufi was considered controversial by various groups because it was considered to carry the doctrine of Wahdah al-Wujud.

It is teachings like this that should begin to be planted slowly in pesantren, of course by using the language of pesantren scholars themselves such as Shaykh Nawawi, so that they are not trapped by the label that is carried.

Admittedly, in the pesantren tradition, their Sufism teachings usually dwell on Sunni Sufism (a term that also needs to be academically tested), namely al-Junayd and Imam al-Ghazali – known as fiqh-sufistic initiators – and tend to deny high-dose Sufism such as Ibn ‘Araby, Rumi, al-Jili, etc. The important thing is to formulate the transformation, so that the high-dose teachings can be delivered crisply / lightly and do not cause resistance among the general public.

In addition, meetings with different groups are also important to be carried out intensively. It is believed that this will also erode negative presumptions that have the potential to occur due to differences. With the invaluable capital of Islamic teachings (rahmah li al-‘alamin), Muslims in general and the students in particular, actually have great potential to develop – which Said Aqil Siroj in Sufism as Social Criticism (Bandung: Mizan, 2006, p. 63 ) called – ukhuwwah imaniyyah (interfaith brotherhood). This is the origin of world peace.

Expert Opinion Review

The President of the International Sufi Academy, Sheikh Dr. Aziz al-Kubaity, said Sufi teachings played a major role in world peace. According to him, science without being accompanied by a true understanding of tassawuf can give birth to radicalism or terrorism in the name of Islam.

According to Aziz, the rise of feuds in the name of religion due to understanding Islam with lust, without being accompanied by tazkiyah or purification of the heart as one of the core teachings of tasawwuf

Religion with lust also often makes fellow Muslims blame each other. In addition, will claim themselves and the most correct group.

Azis said, the history of Islam in the world recorded, the Sufis with the teachings of Sufism always put forward ethics. Not only in religion, but also in the nation and state.

In fact, since hundreds of years ago, in any country, every time there was a conflict, the scholars of Sufism played a role in initiating conflict peace in the name of religion. Because the teachings of tasawwuf promote universal peace, by alienating both personal and group violence.

Aziz also always holds an International Sufi Conference every three years. The participants were delegates from dozens of Islamic countries.

A Kyai Muda Nahdatul Ulama (NU), admitted that he deliberately took the initiative to hold an Islamic Da’wah Safari Program Friendly with Bertasawwuf by cooperating with international class scholars.

NU is synonymous with politeness in religion, to the context of the nation and state. NU is also the largest mass organization that has very strong observations on the teachings of Sufism.

The Future of Pesantren in the Challenges of Modernity and the Challenges of Global Complexity (Jakarta: IRD Press, 2004, p. 63), Martin van Bruinessen states, if we look at the history of Indonesian Islam, the emphasis on fiqh is not as strong as it has been lately. At first, Indonesian Islam was very much oriented towards Sufism and only gradually became more oriented towards Sharia. This change in orientation, among others, was due to the process of renewal and “purification that had begun in the 17th century and is still continuing today” (meaning when the research was conducted before 1995).

In the Yellow Book: Pesantren and Tarekat, (Bandung: Mizan, 1995, p. 112), Martin called Padri, al-Isryad, Muhammadiyah and Persis as the prominent waves of renewal in this process. Add to this was the emergence of the Naqshabandiyah Tariqa at the end of the 19th century which was more oriented towards Sharia than the previous tarekat. Under observation

Martin, every wave of reform always brings greater attention to fiqh and to the system of thought that lies behind it, ushul fiqh.

The same thing is recognized by Harun Nasution in Islamic Theology; Historical Streams of Comparative Analysis (Jakarta: UI Press, 1986, p. Xi), which states that prominent teachings are actually fiqh, which in turn gives a “lame” picture of Islam. Whereas in addition to fiqh aspects, Islam has aspects of theology, philosophy, mysticism, culture, science and so on.

Another aspect, in this case Sufism, may need to be added portions and doses in teaching in boarding schools. Why Sufism? According to Sufi scholar Ibn Araby, Kautsar Azhari Noer, “Fill is more tolerant than skin”. For him, Sufism is teaching the contents or the essence of religion that is not insulated rigidly by black-white or halal-haram space.

These teachings without barriers are believed to be a knitting rope for tolerance and world peace. In the book Variety of Islamic Expression of the Archipelago (Jakarta: the WAHID Institute, 2008, pp. 78-80), in 2007, the WAHID Institute even conducted research which concluded that “Sufism is a great tent of peace”.

Conclusion

The question is what mysticism will lead to true tolerance and peace? In general, any teaching and type of Sufism will teach respect for the creatures of Allah, regardless of religious background, social status, ethnicity and so on.

In particular, usually the teachings of Sufism with high doses (which are no longer moral, but philosophical) are more leading to tolerance and peace. According to Kautsar, tolerant Sufism mostly touches (or has geneology) with Wahdah al-Wujud Ibn ‘Arabi. Asghar Ali Enginer in Islam and Liberation Theology (Yogyakarta: Landscape), 2000, p. 297) said, Sufis who adhere to Wahdah al-Wujud can get along freely with everyone regardless of their background, because this concept is considered “universal”.

Narrated Asghar (p. 296), one time Nizamuddin Awliya ‘walked along the Jamuna river with his student, Amir Khusrau. He saw several Hindu women bathing and worshiping the sun. He said; “Har qaum re dine wa qibla gahe” / for each people, there are religions and ways of worship respectively. This is a wonderful example of tolerance and appreciation from different people, which in fact has been taught by all spirituality of any religion.

In the context of Islam, Sufism is most worth putting forward as a tangible manifestation of tolerance and peace. Even at a certain level, the tolerance shown by Sufis sometimes to the extent of “crazy tolerance”. For the context of Indonesian scholars, for example, a high appreciation for the differences between them was conveyed by Sheikh Nawawi al-Bantani. In al-Futuhat al-Madaniyyah (T.T [: T.Th., pp. 21-22), he writes: Do not look at someone with a condescending and humiliating look, even though he is a polytheist, they are worried that they will affect you. It could be, your ma’rifah (to Allah) was taken, even though he could give it. Especially to non-Muslims who are still faithful and do not double God, to the polytheists (people who double God), forbidden Muslims (la) look at him with contemptuous views.

Sheikh Nawawi al-Bantani’s open view (p. 2) was possible because this work was a spark of Sufism Ibn ‘Araby’s thought. The author of Marah Labid acknowledges that the essence of his work is quoted from two books: al-Niqayah by al-Suyuti and al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah by Muhy al-Din bin ‘Arabi. This shows, in geneology of thought, Sheikh Nawawi is quite familiar and not allergic to Ibn ‘Araby and his work, although the Andalusian Sufi was considered controversial by various groups because it was considered to carry the doctrine of Wahdah al-Wujud.

It is teachings like this that should begin to be planted slowly in pesantren, of course by using the language of pesantren scholars themselves such as Shaykh Nawawi, so that they are not trapped by the label that is carried.

Admittedly, in the pesantren tradition, their Sufism teachings usually dwell on Sunni Sufism (a term that also needs to be academically tested), namely al-Junayd and Imam al-Ghazali – known as fiqh-sufistic initiators – and tend to deny high-dose Sufism such as Ibn ‘Araby, Rumi, al-Jili, etc. The important thing is to formulate the transformation, so that the high-dose teachings can be delivered crisply / lightly and do not cause resistance among the general public.

In addition, meetings with different groups are also important to be carried out intensively. It is believed that this will also erode negative presumptions that have the potential to occur due to differences. With the invaluable capital of Islamic teachings (rahmah li al-‘alamin), Muslims in general and the students in particular, actually have great potential to develop – which Said Aqil Siroj in Sufism as Social Criticism (Bandung: Mizan, 2006, p. 63 ) called – ukhuwwah imaniyyah (interfaith brotherhood). This is the origin of world peace.

Reference:
Al-Qur’an
Hadiths
Teaching Materials and Studies at ICAS, Mysticism Study Program
wikipedia
Various Print Sources and OnLine